Ground freezing was used to complete a shaft excavation that had been previously attempted using a slurry diaphragm wall and jet grouting. Problems with the vertical joints and gaps in the jet grout columns created both soil and groundwater inflows during construction. While working through the shaft issues, tunnel mining proceeded at lower elevations. Freezing was selected as the most positive method to complete the shaft. The freezing was completed around both the damaged shaft and the existing tunnel.
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