Ground freezing has been used extensively in the last ten years for the construction of transit tunnel cross passages and SEM tunnels, as well as short adits for utility tunnels. Quite often the ground freezing design requirements are more complex than in convention-al shafts. The frozen earth structures are frequently located in urban areas where freezing forces against structures and utilities are common. Additional considerations must be given to frost heave and thaw consolidation. This paper discusses the design procedures related to frost action. Case histories are presented that indicate how frost effects can be controlled with heating pipes, coolant control, insulation methods, and in some cases additional structural bracing. A unique project is discussed where building columns required the installation of a jacking system to accommodate the heave and settlement.
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