The first documented procedures for designing frozen earth structures are over 50 years old, implemented long before the introduction of the Finite Element Method (FEM). Since that time, the development of three-dimensional models has made the traditional and often over-conservative methods relatively obsolete. This paper discusses a new approach that is largely dependent on the analysis of internal stresses with the frozen structure and comparison to frozen soil laboratory tests. A specific design process is discussed related to initial field investigation, laboratory testing, structural and thermal analysis, and performance monitoring. The design results are compared to case histories in the field that verify the procedure.
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